The SQL OVER() clause – when and why is it useful?

[Origin]: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/6218902/the-sql-over-clause-when-and-why-is-it-useful

The OVER clause is powerful in that you can have aggregates over different ranges (“windowing”), whether you use a GROUP BY or not

Example: get count per SalesOrderID and count of all

SELECT
    SalesOrderID, ProductID, OrderQty
    ,COUNT(OrderQty) AS 'Count'
    ,COUNT(*) OVER () AS 'CountAll'
FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail 
WHERE
     SalesOrderID IN(43659,43664)
GROUP BY
     SalesOrderID, ProductID, OrderQty
Get different COUNTs, no GROUP BY

SELECT
    SalesOrderID, ProductID, OrderQty
    ,COUNT(OrderQty) OVER(PARTITION BY SalesOrderID) AS 'CountQtyPerOrder'
    ,COUNT(OrderQty) OVER(PARTITION BY ProductID) AS 'CountQtyPerProduct',
    ,COUNT(*) OVER () AS 'CountAllAgain'
FROM Sales.SalesOrderDetail 
WHERE
     SalesOrderID IN(43659,43664)
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