Encoding Problem: Treating UTF-8 Bytes as Windows-1252 or ISO-8859-1

[Origin]: http://www.i18nqa.com/debug/bug-utf-8-latin1.html


Instead of an expected character, a sequence of Latin characters is shown, typically starting with à or Â. For example, instead of “è” these characters occur: “è”.


A common problem is for characters encoded as UTF-8 to have their individual bytes interpreted as ISO-8859-1 or Windows-1252. For example:

  • A Web page is encoded as UTF-8 characters. The Web server mistakenly declares the charset to be ISO-8859-1 in the HTTP protocol that delivers the page to the browser. The browser will then display each of the UTF-8 bytes in the Web page as Latin-1 characters.
  • A file such as a Java property file, which is encoded with UTF-8, is incorrectly converted as it is imported. As it is read in by Java it is converted from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8.

A character such as è (e-Grave, U+00E8) consists of two bytes in UTF-8: 0xC3 and 0xA8. If each of these bytes are treated as either ISO-8859-1 or Wiindows-1252 code points, then the displayed characters will be à and ¨.

Table 1
Example Treating UTF-8 Bytes as
Windows-1252 or ISO-8859-1
Character UTF-8 Bytes Bytes viewed in Latin-1
è 0xC3, 0xA8 Ã, ¨

You can use the Encoding Debug Table to look up any erroneous sequence of Latin characters and find out the UTF-8 character that it corresponds to and that generated it.



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